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99 Yatra



The Origins of Folk Music

Shri Osmangani Kumbhar is a grand-son of worldwide celebrity late Shri Buddha Chacha Umar Kumbhar of Bhuj. Osmangani not only plays Bhorrindo, but also prepares on the wheel of making pottery vessels, toys etc. in imaginative way. As the shape of Bhorrindo like an egg, the author has tried to prepare it from a wild tree seeds from his friend Shri Dhiraj Kothari. We can get the sweet notes of double flute, singing of birds from Ingoria's Bhorrindo. The Bhorrindo of Ingoria fruit is too strong of India i.e. Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya, Bhopal, Indira Gandhi Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay and in overseas i.e. in the British Museum, Museum of Mankind, London, National Gallery of Australian Foundation, Canberra for an unending presentation with a view to underline Kutchi folk music tradition in all over the world.

Shri Musa Gulam Jat, Shri Mohammadali Fathal Node, Shri Osmangani Kumbhar of Kutch is the most important maestros of playing Bhorrindo. And the author plays it for getting sweet singing of various birds for his own satisfaction. Author's interview on the Bhorrindo had been broadcast in “Surabhi” – a cultural magazine serial shown over National Programme of Doordarshan – 1 on 11th February 1996. The interview was taken by Ms. Renuka Shahane & Mr. Siddharth Kak of Surabhi.

Dak or Daklu:

Dark or Daklu belongs to the Damaru family. The shape of the Dark or Daklu is like to the shape of the Damaru, but larger in range sometimes. It is played to create terrible environment.

The body of the Dak of Daklu is made of an hour-glass frame with vellum drum heads. The heads are generally of calf skin, attached to jewellery on both sides and braced and tightened with ropes. It is struck only on side either by hand or by stick. The cords are hard-pressed and released in quick succession to give changeable degrees to nervousness to the skinheads effecting changes in tonal sound.

The Dak or Daklu is mostly used by the mendicants and jugglers of the Bhuva group of people. These Bhuvas play the Dak or Daklu at the time of exclusion of the fundamentals like phantom etc. Dark is also played while observing tantrik-cult.


The origin of the Damaru has been credited to great archeological find and its importance in Indian tradition has been covered upon by scholars. Damaru is associated with Lord Shiva in Hindu folklore. It is said that Lord Shiva played Damaru at the time of tandav-nritya. It is also believed that the fourteen sutra of Vyakaransastra were produced from the sound of Damaru of Lord Shiva. This is the reason why these fourteen sutra are called Sivasutrani. The Damaru is also represented as an characteristic of Shiva Nataraja in olden sculptures.

The shape of the Damaru is like an hour-glass. Its length varies from six inches to one foot. The body of the instrument is made of wooden hour-glass shaped covering with two skin-heads laced to the body by cotton rope or tarsar thread. A small ball of metal or plug is attached to a string which is bound round the narrow waist of the drum over the braces connecting the two heads.

The method of playing the Damaru is very unusual. It is held in the right hand and rolled from side to side. With a speedy movement of the head, turning the drum up and down in quick succession, the string attitude the metal ball strikes alternately against the centre of both the heads producing quick replication of the same tone. To tight or to loose the bracket on the drum, the fingers are squeezed and unconfined. The longer type Damaru is provided with two-knotted strings tied to the cords in the middle part of the drum. This type of arrangement is intended for very fast tempo. Therefore, it may be noted that the tempo function is very limited in the Damaru. So it is not meant to play rhythm, but just to produce loud and quick sound.

The Damaru is used for additional devotional and ritualistic folk music. Generally, it is used by mendicant's snake charmers, gypsies and jugglers.


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